TitleThree-dimensional kinematics of hummingbird flight
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2007
AuthorsTobalske, BW, Warrick, DR, Clark, CJ, Powers, DR, Hedrick, TL, Hyder, GA, Biewener, AA
JournalJournal of Experimental Biology
Type of ArticleJournal Article

{Hummingbirds are specialized for hovering flight, and substantial research has explored this behavior. Forward flight is also important to hummingbirds, but the manner in which they perform forward flight is not well documented. Previous research suggests that hummingbirds increase flight velocity by simultaneously tilting their body angle and stroke-plane angle of the wings, without varying wingbeat frequency and upstroke: downstroke span ratio. We hypothesized that other wing kinematics besides stroke-plane angle would vary in hummingbirds. To test this, we used synchronized highspeed ( 500 Hz) video cameras and measured the three-dimensional wing and body kinematics of rufous hummingbirds ( Selasphorus rufus, 3 g

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