TitlePhylogenetic analysis of Trechitae (Coleoptera : Carabidae) based on larval morphology, with a description of first-instar Phrypeus and a key to genera
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2005
AuthorsGrebennikov, VV, Maddison, DR
JournalSystematic Entomology
Type of ArticleJournal Article

Sixty-nine characters of larval structure of twenty-eight genera of the supertribe Trechitae (Coleoptera: Carabidae) were analysed phylogenetically. The monophyly of Trechitae is strongly supported with five unique synapomorphies. The monophyly of Zolini + Bembidiini + Pogonini is supported with two synapomorphies. We propose that the tribe Trechini is a sister group to them and its monophyly is supported with two unique synapomorphies. The inferred branching pattern of Trechini genera is (Perileptus + Thalassophilus) + (Amblystogenium + (Trechimorphus + (Trechus + Epaphius + Aepopsis + Trechisibus))); Perileptus is a member of Trechodina rather than Trechina. The monophyly of Zolini is not supported. The monophyly of Pogonini is supported with two unique synapomorphies; its sister group relationships remain obscure; the branching pattern of pogonine genera is (((Pogonus + Pogonistes) + Cardiaderus) + Thalassotrechus). No evidence for monophyly of the tribe Bembidiini (s. lato; including subtribes Bembidiina, Tachyina, Xystosomina, and Anillina) was found. The relationships of Phrypeus are obscure; no evidence could be found linking it with Bembidiina. Without Phrypeus, Bembidiina might be a monophylum with a single synapomorphy. Sinechostictus branches basal of (Bembidion + Asaphidion) and therefore should be treated as a separate genus. Tachyina and Xystosomina form a monophylum based on two unique synapomorphies; a close relationship with a monophyletic Anillina is suggested. Reduction of the number of claws from two to one in Trechitae has taken place twice: within Trechina (Trechus, Epaphius, Aepopsis and Trechisibus) and in (Zolini + Bembidiini + Pogonini). The previously unknown larvae of the isolated genus Phrypeus are described and illustrated. A key to all twenty-eight analysed Trechitae genera based on characters of larvae and a list of larval autapomorphies for each genus are provided.

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