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|Title||Lung structure and ventilation in theropod dinosaurs and early birds|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||1997|
|Authors||Ruben, J, Jones, TD, Geist, NR, Hillenius, WJ|
|Type of Article||Journal Article|
Reptiles and birds possess septate lungs rather than the alveolar-style lungs of mammals. The morphology of the unmodified, bellowslike septate lung restricts the maximum rates of respiratory gas exchange. Among taxa possessing septate lungs, only the modified avian flow-through lung is capable of the oxygen-carbon dioxide exchange rates that are typical of active endotherms. Paleontological and neontological evidence indicates that theropod dinosaurs possessed unmodified, bellowslike septate lungs that were ventilated with a crocodilelike hepatic-piston diaphragm, The earliest birds (Archaeopteryx and enantiornithines) also possessed unmodified septate lungs but lacked a hepatic-piston diaphragm mechanism. These data are consistent with an ectothermic status for theropod dinosaurs and early birds.
|URL||<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1997YG04300037|