TitleHuman domination of Earth's ecosystems
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication1997
AuthorsVitousek, PM, Mooney, HA, Lubchenco, J, Melillo, JM
JournalScience
Volume277
Pagination494-499
Type of ArticleJournal Article
ISSN0036-8075
Abstract

Human alteration of Earth is substantial and growing. Between one-third and one-half of the land surface has been transformed by human action; the carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere has increased by nearly 30 percent since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution; more atmospheric nitrogen is fixed by humanity than by all natural terrestrial sources combined; more than half of all accessible surface fresh water is put to use by humanity; and about one-quarter of the bird species on Earth have been driven to extinction. By these and other standards, it is clear that we live on a human-dominated planet.

URL<Go to ISI>://WOS:A1997XM86700030
DOI10.1126/science.277.5325.494