TitleEarly Cretaceous phlebotomine sand fly larvae (Diptera : Psychodidae)
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2006
AuthorsPoinar, GO, Jacobson, RL, Eisenberger, CL
JournalProceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington
Type of ArticleJournal Article

Two sand fly larvae (Diptera: Psychodidae) are characterized from Early Cretaceous Burmese amber. Both larvae, which are considered to be post-first instars, possess only a single pair of caudal setae on the terminal (9(th)) abdominal segment. All known extant post-first instar sand fly larvae possess two pairs of caudal setae except for the Old World Phlebotomus (Larroussius) tobbi Adler and Theodor and New World Brumptomyia Franca and Parrot. The fossil larvae could represent an ancestral line continued today by P. tobbi or a completely separate lineage, and they show that a single pair of caudal setae was an ancient characteristic. A close association of the fossil larvae with the fruiting bodies of a non-gilled coral fungus, Palaeoclavaria burmitis Poinar and Brown (Hymenomycetes: Palaeoclavariaceae), suggests a source of nourishment for Early Cretaceous sand flies.

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