TitleCONSTRAINTS ON PHENOTYPIC EVOLUTION
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication1992
AuthorsArnold, SJ
JournalAmerican Naturalist
Volume140
PaginationS85-S107
Keywordsmutation-selection balance genotype-environment interaction quantitative genetics natural-selection sexual dimorphism morphological-differentiation developmental constraints covariance structure ontogenetic changes polygenic traits
Abstract

Constraints on phenotypic evolution can take a variety of forms. Constraints can arise from inheritance, selection, development, and design limits. Contemporary visions of the evolutionary process often focus on one or two of these varieties and ignore the others. A unifying framework that considers all four major varieties of constraint is emerging within the discipline of quantitative genetics. I attempt to sketch that emerging framework and summarize recent efforts toward unification. Although couched in the technical language of quantitative genetics, the ongoing search for a common framework promises a rapprochement among the approaches of optimality theorists. population geneticists. and developmental biologists.