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California (USA) garter snake life history stochastic demography Thamnophis elegans table response experiments thamnophis-elegans environmental stochasticity variable environments growth-rate delayed reproduction poecilia-reticulata natural-selection vit (1) chemoreceptive responses evolutionary response thamnophis-elegans vancouver island dangerous prey vomeronasal resistance predators diets (1) climate change (1)
coalescent-based maximum likelihood extinction-recolonization F(ST) isolation by distance metapopulation microsatellites maximum-likelihood-estimation northern leopard frog microsatellite loci phylogenetic-relationships coalescent approach migration rates (1) coastal dune (1) coastal ecosystems (1)
coastal protection (1) colorado desert fouquieriaceae mortality estimation sonoran desert colorado-desert vegetation population mortality arizona (1) colouration diversifying selection ecotypic variation F-SC heritability microsatellites Q(SC) Q-statistics scalation color-pattern variation erie water snakes natural-selection lake-erie gene flow quantitative traits g-matrix behavioral variation multiple (1)
competition survival weibull function stress-tolerancerce sonoran desert plant-communities water relations competition patterns reproduction growth survivorship removal opuntia (1) conservation (1) conservation paleobiology (1)
courtship signal pheromone phospholipase A2 inhibitor positive selection rapid evolution reproductive proteins sex-related genes female-attracting pheromone codon-substitution models amino-acid sites plethodontid salamander terrestrial salamander cynops-p (1) crawling speed ecomorphology lateral bending population variation nerodia-fasciata performance capacity behavioral variation natural-populations muscular mechanisms elaphe-obsoleta body-size limbless morphology kinematics (1)