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12s ribosomal-rna phylogenetic analysis maximum-likelihood strepsiptera problem secondary structure dna-sequence substitution incongruence saturation characters (1) adaptive landscape canonical analysis correlational selection disruptive selection fitness surface nonlinear selection stabilizing selection natural-selection multivariate selection phenotypic selection teleogryllus-commodus stabilizing selection directio (1) adaptive landscape genetic correlation G-matrix mutation quantitative genetics response to selection life-history traits selection balance stabilizing selection drosophila-melanogaster caenorhabditis-elegans quantitative genetics polygenic traits characte (1)
adaptive landscape genetic correlation genetic covariance genetic variance net selection gradient pleiotropy response to selection quantitative genetics quantitative-genetic-analysis mutation-selection balance drosophila-melanogaster phenotypic evolution (1) adaptive landscape macroevolution microevolution phenotypic evolution quantitative genetic models comparative methods effective population-size quantitative-genetic-analysis phenotypic evolution natural-selection contemporary microevolution morphological (1) Agelaius phoeiceus components of fitness extra-pair copulations mate quality opportunity for selection red-winged blackbirds sexual selection variance in reproductive success lifetime reproductive success female choice mating success variance fitness diff (1)
Albumin DNA sequences Plethodon Speciation Taxonomy 12s mtDNA sequences geographic protein variation north-american salamanders life-history evolution phylogenetic-relationships rapid diversification cinereus group populations divergence radiation distanc (1) allometry pacific coast gonad cycle intertidal enso sea surface temperature multivariate enso index latitudinal patterns pacific decadal oscillation northeast pacific el-nino resource-allocation southern-california giant-kelp seasonal acclimatization biol (1) Ammophila (1)
asymmetric sexual isolation Desmognathus ochrophaeus quantitative genetics model reproductive isolation sexual isolation sexual selection triple Gaussian model salamander desmognathus-ochrophaeus mate-recognition systems plethodontid salamanders drosophil (1) barriers to dispersal Bufo boreas landscape genetics microsatellites Thamnophis elegans Thamnophis sirtalis frog rana-sylvatica microsatellite loci landscape genetics bufo-calamita regression approach thamnophis-elegans variance mitochondrial dispersal di (1) Bateman gradient index of resource monopolization microsatellites Morisita index parentage sexual selection potential reproductive rates rough-skinned newt taricha-granulosa sperm precedence selection variance success opportunity males competition (1)
Bateman gradient mating system microsatellites paternity parentage sexual selection potential reproductive rates taricha-granulosa mate choice success variance opportunity evolution pipefish behavior systems (1) beachgrass (1) bertalanffy tanaka newton's method mesocentrotus echinometra stomopneustes evechinus-chloroticus echinoidea strongylocentrotus-franciscanus mortality-rates population-dynamics echinus-esculentus echinodermata california longevity echinometridae variabilit (1)
Bifurcation (1) Biological invasion (1) body size (1)
California (USA) garter snake life history stochastic demography Thamnophis elegans table response experiments thamnophis-elegans environmental stochasticity variable environments growth-rate delayed reproduction poecilia-reticulata natural-selection vit (1) chemoreceptive responses evolutionary response thamnophis-elegans vancouver island dangerous prey vomeronasal resistance predators diets (1) climate change (1)
coalescent-based maximum likelihood extinction-recolonization F(ST) isolation by distance metapopulation microsatellites maximum-likelihood-estimation northern leopard frog microsatellite loci phylogenetic-relationships coalescent approach migration rates (1) coastal dune (1) coastal ecosystems (1)
coastal protection (1) colorado desert fouquieriaceae mortality estimation sonoran desert colorado-desert vegetation population mortality arizona (1) colouration diversifying selection ecotypic variation F-SC heritability microsatellites Q(SC) Q-statistics scalation color-pattern variation erie water snakes natural-selection lake-erie gene flow quantitative traits g-matrix behavioral variation multiple (1)
competition survival weibull function stress-tolerancerce sonoran desert plant-communities water relations competition patterns reproduction growth survivorship removal opuntia (1) conservation (1) conservation paleobiology (1)
courtship signal pheromone phospholipase A2 inhibitor positive selection rapid evolution reproductive proteins sex-related genes female-attracting pheromone codon-substitution models amino-acid sites plethodontid salamander terrestrial salamander cynops-p (1) crawling speed ecomorphology lateral bending population variation nerodia-fasciata performance capacity behavioral variation natural-populations muscular mechanisms elaphe-obsoleta body-size limbless morphology kinematics (1) Del Norte salamander microsatellites Plethodon Siskiyou Mountain salamander genus plethodon speciation behavior loci dna (1)
Desmognathus ocoee microsatellite parentage salamander sperm storage rough-skinned newt desmognathus-ochrophaeus sexual selection plethodontid salamander genus desmognathus triturus-alpestris alpine newt insemination competition precedence (1) deterministic demography Eagle Lake (1) diel feeding chronology prince-william-sound cod gadus-morhua coho salmon lipid-composition chinook salmon oncorhynchus-tshawytscha species variability yellowtail flounder limanda-ferruginea (1)
Direct effects (1) disturbance (1) Disturbance experiments (1)
echinometra-mathaei deblainville rocky subtidal zone strongylocentrotus-droebachiensis community structure kelp forest shore crab population-structure potential predators diadema-antillarum carcinus-maenas (1) ecological subsidies (1) ecosystem dynamics (1)
ecosystem service (1) eelgrass (1) enhancement effect evolution in changing environments genetic drift heritability moving optimum pleiotropy selection gradient quantitative-genetic-analysis stabilizing selection phenotypic evolution polygenic traits moving optimum mutation balance adaptat (1)
environmental sex determination incubation-temperature thamnophis-sirtalis sauria-iguanidae locomotor performance selection evolution reptiles display term (1) estuary (1) Eurycea guttolineata Plethodon shermani Desmognathus ocoee Plethodontid Receptivity Factor Plethodontid Modulating Factor Sodefrin Precursor-Like Factor atrial-natriuretic-peptide life-history evolution terrestrial salamander female receptivity signaling (1)
eutrophication (1) extinction risk (1) fecundity garter snake growth (1)
fish daily ration oncorhynchus-kisutch walbaum columbia river plume sockeye-salmon coho salmon meal size prey selectivity british-columbia lake washington multiple meals (1) Fisher process quantitative genetic model reproductive isolation sexual ornaments stochastic simulations artificial selection mating preference female choice evolution drosophila conflict patterns models populations divergence (1) florida bay USA thalassia-testudinum population-dynamics growth productivity demography biomass decline forest (1)
Flury hierarchy genetic correlation matrix comparisons principal components analysis quantitative genetics randomization test statistical resampling common principal components quantitative genetics morphological-differentiation phenotypic evolution param (1) Flury hierarchy genetic correlation matrix comparisons quantitative genetics snakes quantitative genetics natural-populations phenotypic evolution behavioral variation morphological-differentiation morphometric correlation drosophila-melanogaster phylogen (1) Flury hierarchy genetic covariance matrix sexual dimorphism Thamnophis elegans variance-covariance matrices snake thamnophis-ordinoides garter snake sexual-dimorphism genetic correlations antipredator behavior stabilizing selection principal components na (1)
Food chain (1) Food web (1) freshwater stream fishes (1)
functional group (1) Generalized modeling (1) genetic correlation genetic covariance genetic variance pleiotropy response to selection quantitative genetics variance-covariance matrices quantitative genetics drosophila-melanogaster natural-populations allonemobius-socius finite populations garter sna (1)
geographic patterns demography size structure growth recruitment survival sea urchin baja-california peninsula life-history traits population-dynamics abundance distributions northeastern pacific intertidal community geographic ranges macoma-balthica ther (1) geographic protein variation desmognathus-ochrophaeus gene flow sexual isolation terrestrial salamanders ensatina-eschscholtzii natural-populations sperm competition hybrid zone hybridization (1) geographic range (1)
Great Basin (1) growth tanaka function survival reproduction reproductive value disposable soma life-history resource-allocation growth mortality california purpuratus evolution patterns rates size (1) Holocene (1)
homing microsatellites newts parentage population structure site fidelity (1) individual life history variation (1) interleukin-6 signal transducer molecular evolution Plethodon shermani evolution prediction declines cloning complex system (1)
interspecific competition field experiments female choice ecological causes dimorphism evolution characters success birds covariance (1) Intraguild predation (1) invasion risk (1)
latitudinal cline tanaka growth model log-linear model survival sea urchin strongylocentrotus franciscanus tetracycline san-nicolas-island life-history resource-allocation purpuratus stimpson population-dynamics echinus-esculentus diadema-antillarum arist (1) life-history traits strongylocentrotus-franciscanus resource-allocation purpuratus stimpson telomeres shorten size morphology allometry mortality cancer (1) macroalgae (1)
male reproductive success coral-reef fish simultaneous hermaphroditism attractive structures chamaelirium-luteum natural-population mating system evolution size consequences (1) mating success microsatellites sexual selection Syngnathus typhle reproductive success potential reproductive rates mating systems success females ratios males syngnathidae competition investment variance (1) maximized vs. optimized growth rate (1)
meta-ecosystems (1) metacommunity structure (1) multivariate gradient analysis (1)
mutation-selection balance genotype-environment interaction quantitative genetics natural-selection sexual dimorphism morphological-differentiation developmental constraints covariance structure ontogenetic changes polygenic traits (1) native vs. invasive behavior diurnal hunting pattern crepuscular hunting time budget western north-atlantic biotic invasions fishes diel scorpaenidae recruitment populations predation responses habitats (1) natural-selection evolution populations characters fitness (1)
new-south-wales paracentrotus-lividus echinodermata reproductive-cycle heliocidaris-erythrogramma droebachiensis muller sympatric populations contrasting habitats resource-allocation food availability spiny lobster (1) norms of reaction reaction norms canalization environmental canalization Thamnophis elegans vertebral number meristic traits stabilizing selection fluctuating asymmetry scutellation scalation osteological abnormality quantitative-genetic model phenotypic (1) northern California Current large marine ecosystem (1)
nutrients (1) oceanic upwelling (1) oceanographic conditions (1)
Omnivory (1) Oregon (1) paleoecology (1)
Pheromone gene Rapid evolution Positive selection Reproductive protein Courtship signal Sexual communication north-american salamanders amino-acid sites sexual selection genus-plethodon female receptivity terrestrial salamander chemical communication phyl (1) Plethodon shermani plethodontid courtship pheromone PMF plethodontid receptivity/modulating factors red-legged salamander vertebrate chemical communication during courtship and mating vomeronasal neurons plethodon-jordani sexual-behavior newt sodefrin pro (1) population-dynamics arctica-islandica age-determination growth zones kelp forest echinoidea echinodermata radiocarbon recruitment mortality (1)
positive selection pheromone plethodontid receptivity factor cytokine pheromone delivery detecting molecular adaptation ciliary neurotrophic factor leukemia inhibitory factor codon-substitution models growth-hormone receptor sexual conflict rapid evolutio (1) positive selection plethodontid receptivity factor plethodon courtship pheromone sexual selection cytokine life-history evolution amino-acid sites positive selection plethodontid salamanders genetic-relationships female receptivity protein evolution sexua (1) Predator–prey system (1)
prey fields sampling gears catchability micronekton salmon diets california current columbia river plume diel feeding chronology oncorhynchus-kisutch pacific salmon gastric evacuation continental-shelf food-consumption north-america oregon waters (1) reef fish communities population regulation life-history mortality predation consequences scale river spp. (1) relative importance (1)
reproductive effort garter snake life history senescence relative clutch mass natural-selection growth age population hypotheses pleiotropy longevity mortality ecology (1) Reproductive strategy (1) Resource allocation (1)
rocky intertidal communities (1) sand supply (1) scaphiopus-couchii tadpoles life-history genetic-variation sexual isolation hyla-gratiosa food webs growth environment plasticity evolution (1)
Sea ice (1) Seagrass (1) Sedimentation (1)
sexual selection drosophila-melanogaster reproductive success evolution females behavior males competition variance choice (1) slider trachemys-scripta female rats turtle temperature masculinization morphology estradiol reversal behavior uterus (1) small mammals (1)
spatial migration phenotypic plasticity reproductive maturation survival Thamnophis elegans guppies poecilia-reticulata growth-rates phenotypic plasticity behavioral variation natural-populations reproductive characteristics fluctuating environment indet (1) spatial scale (1) species interactions (1)
Tradeoff (1) trait-based biogeography (1) Ulva spp (1)
USA (1) variation partitioning (1) viviparous lizard sex-ratios females characters gestation males (1)
Zostera japonica (1) Zostera marina (1)